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The main functions of oligodendrocytes are to provide metabolic support and neuronal axon myelination in the central nervous system (CNS), which is analogous to Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Myelin sheaths generated by oligodendrocytes are able to facilitate fast neuronal action potential conduction along the axon. Loss of myelin sheaths due to oligodendrocyte dysfunction can lead to subsequent neuron degeneration and cause neuronal disorders such as multiple sclerosis.