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Liver Cancer Tumor Markers

Liver Cancer Tumor Markers

Liver Cancer Tumor Markers

 

Primary liver cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) being the most common type affecting almost one million individuals annually (1). The risk of HCC is higher in people with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis due to viral hepatitis (i.e., HBV and HCV), alcohol overconsumption, or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) related to diabetes and obesity, among other causes. While early detection of HCC is associated with 5‐year survival rates up to 70%, most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage for which effective therapeutic options are limited (2).

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Measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) combined with abdominal ultrasound examination are widely used in the clinical diagnosis of liver cancer. AFP overexpression is commonly found in HCC. Although several studies suggest that AFP may promote tumor cell proliferation via inhibition of apoptotic signals, the specific mechanism for its oncogenic activity remains unclear (3). GeneTex’s mouse monoclonal AFP antibody [2A9] (GTX84954) is validated for multiple applications, including WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, and FACS (Figure 1). Interestingly, this antibody was cited in a recent Scientific Reports paper that examined stem cell reprogramming (4).

GTX84954

Figure 1. GeneTex’s AFP antibody [2A9] (GTX84954) used for IHC-P on human liver tissue and for FACS analysis of Jurkat cells.

 

Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a glycoprotein attached to the cell membrane. GPC3 overexpression is found in HCC, but not in healthy adult liver. Studies have shown GPC3 to be a reliable serological and immunohistochemical marker for HCC diagnosis, and a potential target for immunotherapies (5-6). GeneTex’s Glypican-3 antibody [GT2473] (GTX633410) is a cited mouse monoclonal antibody validated for WB, ICC/IF, and IHC-P. It generates the expected cell membrane staining by ICC/IF and can detect both glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms of GPC3 by WB (Figure 2).

GTX633410

Figure 2. GeneTex’s Glypican-3 antibody [GT2473] (GTX633410) detects GPC3 protein on the HepG2 cell membrane by ICC/IF and various forms of GPC3 by WB of HepG2 whole cell extracts -/+ tunicamycin treatment.

 

Golgi membrane protein 1, also known as GP73, GOLM1, and GOLPH2, is a type II Golgi membrane glycoprotein often overexpressed in the hepatocytes of patients with hepatitis and HCC. Reports indicate that GOLPH2 is a promising serum marker for the diagnosis of HCC (7-8). GeneTex has two well-cited, knockout (KO) cell extract-validated GOLPH2 polyclonal antibodies (GTX107702 and GTX116154) that stain the Golgi apparatus very distinctively by ICC/IF (Figure 3).

GTX107702

Figure 3. GeneTex’s GOLPH2 antibody [C3], C-term (GTX107702) used for ICC/IF on HeLa cells and for WB with both WT and GOLPH2-KO 293T cell extracts.

 

 

References:

  1. Mol Clin Oncol. 2013 Jul;1(4):593-598.
  2. Liver Cancer. 2012 Jun;1(1):2-14.