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Leukemia Markers

Leukemia Markers

 

Leukemias develop when blood cells, primarily white blood cells, undergo neoplastic transformation. They can be acute or chronic. Acute leukemias are characterized by rapid disease progression due to expansion of immature lymphocytes or myeloid cells, and are commonly diagnosed in children. In contrast, chronic leukemias involve aberrant hematopoietic development, and can generate extremely high white blood cell counts. CD (cluster of differentiation) factors are the most common leukemia markers. They are membrane proteins predominantly expressed on the cell surface, and are used to classify disease type.

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CD33, also known as Siglec-3 or gp67, is a 67 kDa glycosylated cell surface receptor that mediates cell-cell interactions and maintains immune cells in a resting state. Although CD33 is found on some lymphoid subsets, it is highly expressed on myeloid lineage cells, and is commonly used for the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). CD33 is an established target for therapy, with CD33-positive blasts detected in almost 90 percent of patients presenting with AML (1). GeneTex’s CD33 antibody [WM53] (GTX00477) is a well-known mouse monoclonal antibody that is available with different conjugates, including FITC (GTX00477-06), PE (GTX00477-08), and APC (GTX00477-07), among others. These antibodies are all useful for flow cytometry and validated with human peripheral blood samples (Figure 1).

CD33 antibody [WM53] (FITC) (GTX00477-06)

Figure 1. GeneTex’s CD33 antibody [WM53] (FITC) (GTX00477-06) used for FACS on a human peripheral blood sample.

 
 

 

CD4 and CD8 are glycoproteins expressed on the surface of immune cells, particularly T cells. They function as co-receptors with T cell receptors (TCRs) to assist interaction with MHC molecules on antigen-presenting cells, resulting in activation of the adaptive immune response. The CD4/CD8 ratio is used clinically to monitor disease progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), with a higher CD8 count being associated with longer median survival (2). GeneTex’s CD4 antibody [GK1.5] (GTX44531) is validated for multiple applications including IHC and FACS, while the CD8 antibody [SK1] (FITC) (GTX01468-06) is validated for FACS (Figure 2).

CD4 antibody [GK1.5] (GTX44531)-CD8 antibody [SK1] (FITC) (GTX01468-06)

Figure 2. GeneTex’s CD4 antibody [GK1.5] (GTX44531) stains CD4-positive lymphocytes in mouse lymph node (left), while the CD8 antibody [SK1] (FITC) (GTX01468-06) demonstrates robust detection of CD8-positive cells in human peripheral blood (right).

 
 

 

CD44 is a multifunctional transmembrane glycoprotein involved in cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and signaling pathways that mediate cell survival. It is involved in many malignancies as well as being recognized as a cancer stem cell marker. Importantly, it is expressed in leukocytes and is a marker of leukemia-initiating cells, being found to be critical in the pathogenesis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) (3). GeneTex’s CD44 antibody [GT462] (GTX628895) is a cited mouse monoclonal antibody validated by knockout lysate and ideal for multiple applications, including WB, IHC-P, FACS, and IP (Figure 3).

CD44 antibody [GT462] (GTX628895)

Figure 3. GeneTex’s CD44 antibody [GT462] (GTX628895) was validated using HeLa knockout lysate (left), and performs in flow cytometry analyzing the human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 (right).

 
 

 

Table: Markers associated with Leukemia

Product Name Reactivity Applications Cat. No.
CD33 antibody [WM53] Hu, Primate WB, ICC/IF, IHC-Fr, FACS, IP, MS GTX00477
CD4 antibody [GK1.5] Hu, Ms WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, IHC-Fr, FACS, IP, ELISA GTX44531
CD8 antibody [SK1] (FITC) Hu, AGMK, Bb, Chmp, ClMK FACS GTX01468-06
CD44 antibody Hu, Ms, Rat, Rb WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, IHC-Fr, IP, IHC GTX102111
CD138 antibody [1A3H4] Hu, Ms WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, FACS, ELISA GTX00451
CD52 antibody Ms WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P GTX00743

 

References:

  1. Blood Cancer J. 2014 Jun; 4(6): e218.
  2. Leuk Lymphoma. 2010 Oct;51(10):1829-36.
  3. Front Oncol. 2018 Oct 31;8:488