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Pancreatic Cancer Tumor Markers

Pancreatic Cancer Tumor Markers

Pancreatic Cancer Tumor Markers

 

Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. With a predicted five-year relative survival rate of 9%, pancreatic cancer continues to be clinically challenging due to its resistance to even the most aggressive combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Because of indistinct symptoms and the absence of reliable diagnostic biomarkers, diagnoses are usually delayed and thus made when the disease is already advanced (which decreases five-year survival to less than 3%). Nevertheless, extensive research has highlighted the importance of several biomarkers and reagents that can significantly improve early detection.

See All Antibodies for Pancreatic Cancer Markers
 
 

KRAS has the distinction of being a preeminent oncoprotein as it is mutated in nearly all pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC), with KRAS G12D and G12V mutations representing 75% of these changes (1). GeneTex’s RAS (G12D Mutant) monoclonal antibody [HL10] (GTX635362) is the first commercially available recombinant rabbit antibody that demonstrates exceptional sensitivity and specificity for the RAS G12D mutant protein in samples from human pancreatic cancer cell lines and a mouse model of PDAC by western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC-P), respectively (Figure 1).

Figure 1. GeneTex's recombinant rabbit RAS (G12D mutant) antibody [HL10] (GTX635362) is sensitive and specific for the RAS G12D mutation by WB and IHC-P in human pancreatic cancer cell lines and a PDAC mouse model.。

 

Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), also known as sialyl-LewisA, is a tetrasaccharide with the sequence Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-3[Fucα1-4]GlcNAcβ. It is used clinically to assist in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, but is more widely used to monitor therapy and detect recurrences in diagnosed cases. CA19-9 is also elevated in many other diseases, including cholangiocarcinoma, colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cirrhosis (2). GeneTex’s CA19-9 antibody [GT933] (GTX635389) showed superior sensitivity for WB, IHC-P, and immunocytochemistry (ICC/IF) in comparative testing against other well-known antibodies (Figures 2 & 3).

CA19-9 antibody [GT933]

Figure 2. GeneTex’s CA19-9 antibody [GT933] (GTX635389) generates a robust signal for IHC-P and WB in comparison to other antibodies.。

CA19-9 antibody [GT933]

Figure 3. GeneTex’s CA19-9 antibody [GT933] (GTX635389) demonstrates superior sensitivity for ICC/IF on SW1116 cells (high CA19-9 expression) and HT29 cells (low CA19-9 expression) in comparison to other antibodies.。

 

Thrombospondin 2 (THBS2) is a secreted glycoprotein that can be expressed together with CA19-9 in patients with early pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) (3). GeneTex offers a selection of antibody reagents for THBS2 research. Several of these are able to detect secreted protein in conditioned media from human AsPC-1 pancreatic tumor cells by WB. In addition, some of the antibodies clearly recognize THBS2 in human pancreatic tumor tissue samples by IHC-P (Figure 4).

Figure 4. GeneTex’s Thrombospondin 2 polyclonal antibody (GTX134554) is validated for both WB and IHC-P (left), while the monoclonal antibody [GT7511] (GTX635392) is validated for WB (right).

 

Glypican-1 expression is upregulated in many human malignancies, including pancreatic cancer (4). There is ongoing research into the potential clinical utility of assessing enriched glypican-1 expression on circulating exosomes as an early cancer marker. GeneTex proudly offers an outstanding, well-cited antibody specific for glypican-1 that has been thoroughly validated for WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, FACS, IP, and ELISA (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Glypican-1 antibody [N3C3] (GTX104557) detects glycosylated glypican-1 protein in various cell lines by WB and performs well in FACS.

 

Though CA19-9 is the most familiar tumor marker associated with pancreatic cancer, there is ongoing interest in developing pancreatic cancer marker panels that include other proteins, glycoproteins, and microRNAs.

 

    

Table: Markers associated with pancreatic cancer

Product Name Reactivity Applications Cat. No.  
RAS (G12D Mutant) antibody [HL10] Hu, Ms WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P GTX635362   
CA19-9 antibody [GT933] Hu WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, FACS, ELISA, Glycan Array GTX635389  
Thrombospondin 2 antibody Hu WB, IHC-P GTX134554  
Glypican-1 antibody [N3C3] Hu, Ms, Rat WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, FACS, IP, ELISA GTX104557    
p53 antibody [DO1] Hu, Ms WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, IHC-Fr, FACS, IP, ELISA GTX70214   
SMAD4 antibody Hu, Ms, Rat WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P GTX112980   
CEA antibody [1106] Hu WB, ICC/IF, FACS, IP, ELISA, RIA GTX15677  
MUC1 antibody Hu WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, IP GTX100459
MUC2 antibody [C3], C-term Hu, Ms ICC/IF, IHC-P, IHC-Fr, IHC GTX100664  
Pancreatic Polypeptide antibody [GT6512] Hu, Ms WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P GTX628832  
RAS antibody Hu, Rat, Zfsh, Frg, Squirrel WB, IHC-P GTX132480  
N-RAS antibody Hu, Ms, Rat WB GTX108598  
H-Ras antibody Hu, Ms, Rat WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, IP GTX116041    
Her2 / ErbB2 antibody Hu WB, IHC-P GTX100509    
MST1 antibody Hu, Ms WB, ICC/IF, IHC-P, IP GTX109294  

 

References:

  1. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2018 Sep 4;8(9):a031435.
  2. J Gastrointest Oncol. 2012 Jun;3(2):105-19.
  3. Sci Transl Med. 2017 Jul 12;9(398):eaah5583.
  4. Ann Transl Med. 2016 Feb;4(4):64.

 

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